Posted in development To Gem Or Not To Gem

Matt Sears | Nov 29, 2021

When it comes to running a Rails project for the long-term, one strong indicator for success is gem decision. I’ve worked on dozens and dozens of Rails applications during my time as a consultant and often times a client’s project would be either be suffering from poor performance or is too difficult to maintain and progress has slowed down to crawl. The first thing I typically looked at is the Gemfile. It’s more common than not that there are too many gems.

This is especially true for new Rails developers - too eager to reach for a gem for every new feature they write. When there are too many gems, the app will run slower since there are more lines of code to process. Why is this? Typically gem authors need to accommodate for a variety of factors. Factors like Ruby versions, database types, or web frameworks like Sinatra. What this means is there is a lot of extra code in that gem that will never be used by our application. Many times, I’ve seen a Rails app just use on method from a single gem!

Three questions I ask when deciding to use a gem or not:

1. Is it currently being maintained?

Take a look at the source code on Github or Gitlab. What is the date of the last commit? Does the author explicitly state that the gem is no longer maintained? If there hasn’t been a commit in the last year, it’s most likely not being updated. So we can’t expect bug fixes or security updates in the near future. It will may also mean that we risk preventing other gems from being updated. For example, running bundle update on our Rails project may not run since the unmaintained gem depends on other older gem versions.

2. What is the size of the gem?

How big is the project? What other gems does it depend on? Browse through the source and get a rough idea about the amount of code. There might be a lot of code to handle a variety of environments or it may not be as organized or designed well. Why is this important? More gems means more Ruby and more Ruby means a slower running app.

3. How much of the gem do we need to utilize?

What do I need from this gem to get our feature complete? Do we just need one or two small things to get the job done or do we need something more comprehensive like Devise or ViewComponents. Obviously, if we need a gem that is more comprehensive, then we should use the gem. A gem like ViewComponents is a large project and would require a lot of code to mimic the functionality and it’s more or less closer to the core of our application.

Case Study

I recently had the need for the ability to save a draft of data before saving it to the real database record. Simply put, I need to stash a set of data that mocked my real ActiveRecord model’s schema and save it to a database until the users decides to publish it.

After some searching, I found a couple gems that do exactly what I need. However, none of them have been updated in the last year. The most popular of the gems is actively looking for a new maintainer and it has a bunch of overly complicated code that I most likely will never need. In my case, I only need to save a draft and publish the draft - that’s it.

If you haven’t guessed by now, I’ve decided not to use any gem and write my own code to do what I need. I’m going to approach this as a reusable code in case we want to use drafts in our other models. I’ve also looked at the source code of the gems to get ideas and use them in my own code.

Let’s create a concern called Draftable:

# apps/models/concerns/draftable

module Draftable
 extend ActiveSupport::Concern

 included do
   has_one :draft, as: :draftable, dependent: :destroy

 def has_draft?
   Draft.exists?(draftable_id: id)

 def save_draft(params = nil)
   return false if new_record?

   if has_draft?

 def publish!
   ActiveRecord::Base.transaction do
     self.attributes = draft.reify.attributes


 def create_draft(_params = nil)
   with_transaction_returning_status do
     draft ||=
     draft.object = ActiveSupport::JSON.encode(attributes)
     draft.draftable_id = id
     draft.draftable_type =

 def update_draft(params = nil)
   with_transaction_returning_status do
     values = ActiveSupport::JSON.decode(draft.object)

     params.each do |key, value|
       values[key.to_s] = value

     draft.object = ActiveSupport::JSON.encode(values)

We’ve made this concern so that any model can have a draft. Here, we’re storing data in the object field using JSON objects. We do this with a polymorphic relationship to a Draft model:

# app/model/draft.rb

class Draft < ApplicationRecord
  belongs_to :draftable, polymorphic: true

  validates :object, presence: true

  def reify
    attrs = ActiveSupport::JSON.decode(object)

    attrs.each do |key, value|
      if draftable.respond_to?("#{key}=") && !key.end_with?("_count")
        draftable.send("#{key}=", value)

Now we can make any model have a draft. For example, let’s say we’re building a blog and we have a Post model that holds the article. I can simply include a Draftable module in my model:

# app/models/post.rb

class Post < ApplicationRecord
  include Draftable

With that, we can do things like post.save_draft(body: 'First draft of the article') to save a draft and @post.publish! to save the draft data to the posts table.

To summarize, the point of creating Draftable is to illustrate the decision not to use a gem even if one exists. With roughly a hundred lines of code (not counting our tests), we’re able to complete our feature and extend our app functionality by allowing any model to have a draft. In addition, we’re not dependent on another gem or it’s dependencies. We’re using less Ruby and so our app is lean and more maintainable.