Forget Service Objects, Write Command Objects in Ruby

The term “service object” can mean different things depending on who you talk to or what project you inherited, hence why I put them in quotes. Since there’s not really a “Rails Way” to put business logic, it was common to shove everything into Active Record models. When that went awry, the concept of service objects came onto the scene and provided a pathway for storing domain logic in plain Ruby objects.

Then something went terribly wrong with service objects - they got too fancy. Sadly, there’s whole host of libraries designed to organize domain logic, but lose sight on what makes Ruby great - readability. Libraries like dry-rb that attempt to organize domain logic in a standard way, but end up making the code much more difficult to understand IMHO.

I much prefer the concept of Command objects. Command closely aligns with procedure. After all, that’s all we’re doing anyway - in between the controller and the models, we’re running procedures, or commands, and returning the result. I’m going to show you how I use command objects in my Rails apps with the help from Mutations, a gem that takes a somewhat hands-off approach to composing business logic by not obscuring business logic with fancy abstractions, rather it merely providing helpful tools to write clear business operations in ruby objects.

Let’s say you’ve been assigned a new project. The project has a page that allows you to search and sort a list of users from the database. To your horror, you discover the following code:

class UsersController < ApplicationController
  def index
    sql = "active=true"
    sql += "order by #{params[:order_by]}" if params[:order_by]
    sql += "and name=#{params[:name]}" if params[:name]
    sql += "and email=#{params[:email]}" if params[:email]
    @users = User.where(sql)

    respond_to do |format|

We’ve probably all seen code like this (and much worse) time and time again. We not only have business logic in our controllers, it’s also not flexible, not secure, hard to test, and definitely error-prone. Let’s clean this up by calling our new a command object instead.

class UsersController < ApplicationController

  def index
    search =

    respond_to do |format|
      if search.success?
        @users = search.result
        render search.errors

Much cleaner and readable. We’ve replaced all the ugly forged sql code with just one line, a command called This Ruby object will contain all the code necessary to search users based on the arguments we send to it and return the results. By the way, I organize command objects in Rails projects like this:


It’s pretty clear what these commands do and we can even read it backwards, search users command in application and create user command in application, and it’s still obvious what these objects do.

For our user search, we have a couple options on how we search for users in our database. We could use a 500 horsepower engine like Elastic Search, but we’re going to keep it simple and use ActiveRecord for now. The nice thing about using a command object, is that it hides the implementation from our caller. So all the code that calls (i.e. Api controllers, background jobs, rake tasks, whatever) won’t need to change. This could be important if later we decide to search for users using Elastic Search instead. Here’s what our command object looks like:

# /app/commands/users/search.rb

class Users::Search < Mutations::Command
  VALID_EMAIL_REGEX = /\A[\w+\-.]+@[a-z\d\-]+(\.[a-z\d\-]+)*\.[a-z]+\z/i

  optional do
    string  :name
    string  :email, matches: VALID_EMAIL_REGEX
    string  :order_by
    string  :direction, in: %w(desc asc)

  def execute


  def build_scope
    scope = search_names(User)
    scope = search_emails(scope)
    scope = sort_users(scope)

  def search_names(scope)
    return scope unless name

    scope.where(name: name)

  def search_emails(scope)
    return scope unless email

    scope.where(email: email)

  def sort_users(scope)
    return scope unless order_by

    scope.order("#{order_by} #{sort_direction}")

Let’s breaks this down. First, we’re inheriting from Mutations::Command class which gives us the nice set of tools. Most notably the optional block that allows us define all the parameters that we will accept. Conversely, we could force the caller to pass in certain parameters with the required block. In these blocks, we can also validate and sanitize the input so if anything unexpected is passed to our command object, Mutations will declare it failed. For example, let’s try to run the command with an improper email address:

>> search = 'wrong@format')
>> search.success?
>> search.errors.message
  "email" => "Email isn't in the right format"

Another cool thing about the arguments we pass in, is that they become more or less variables that we have access to during the execution. For example, email, and name have values that we can use anywhere in our class. In this case, we’re searching the database for users based on information we sent in. We’re doing this by building our ActiveRecord scopes dynamically - chaining scopes if our (optional) parameters have values.

The execute method is where we put the code that we want to run when is called. Mutations stays out of our way here, giving us the freedom to do what we want in this method. There’s no fancy DSL that we have to follow and no binding BS. The result of this method will be assigned to a variable called result. In our case, we’re building ActiveRecord scopes and at the end, returning scope. Let’s see it in action.

search = 'Matt', order_by: 'created_at',
  direction: 'desc')

>> search.result
[#<User:0x00007fa2ccd234hC>,<User:0x00007fa2ccd123sac>, <User:0x00007fa2ccdsad9w>]

>> search.result.class
User::ActiveRecord_Relation < ActiveRecord::Relation

>> search.result.to_sql
"SELECT \"users\".* FROM \"users\" WHERE \"users\".\"name\" = 'Matt'
    ORDER BY created_at desc

Service objects may have their place, but I much rather see a project with a set of commands that clearly defines intent both in logic and in naming.